Inspiration involves divine authorship. The term inspiration (theopneustos) literally means God-breathed.
- All Scripture is inspired by God (theopneustos), and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; - 2 Timothy 3:16
Inspiration comes from two Greek terms theos meaning God and pneuma meaning breath. The term pneuma can also be translated as Spirit. Thus, God breathed out His Word through the Holy Spirit. God did not breathe on the text to inspire it. Instead, He breathed the Scriptures, out of His mouth.
- But He answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live on bread alone, but on every word that proceeds out of the mouth of God. - Matthew 4:4
Inspiration involves human writers. However, inspiration applies only to the words, not the persons. In other words, God communicated His words to human authors, who in turn wrote down what was spoken. These men were not supernatural or inspired. Scripture was not the by-product of their logic or reasoning.
- for no prophecy was ever made by an act of human will, but men moved (phérō) by the Holy Spirit (pneuma) spoke from God. - 2 Peter 1:21
Rather than producing the Scriptures on their own, the human writers were moved (phérō) by the Holy Spirit. Moved by the Holy Spirit means that they were led, directed, or carried along by the Holy Spirit. This moving is what is known as the superintending or divine directing of the Holy Spirit. Since the Holy Spirit superintended the human authorship, God’s Word was recorded without error in the original autographs or original documents.
- Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology, (Chicago: Moody Press, 1989), 160.