- And he wrote upon the tablets (lûaḥ) the words of the covenant, - Exodus 34:28b
- And it came about, when Moses finished writing the words of this law in a book (sēper), - Deuteronomy 31:24
In these passages, tablets translates the term lûaḥ (i.e., clay tablet) and book translates the term sēper (i.e., a scroll). The clay tablets were written before the papyrus scrolls. Thus, the tablet is the autograph, and the scroll is the apograph. This two-fold method of near simultaneous inscription demonstrates that an apograph existed which was an exact facsimile of the autograph. When finished, the papyrus scroll was placed beside the Ark of the Covenant.
- It came about, when Moses finished writing the words of this law in a book until they were complete, […] The Lord saying, Take this book of the law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, that it may remain there as a witness against you. - Deuteronomy 31:9, 24, 26
The placement of the Torah besides the Ark shows that it was finished. Also, by placing it beside the Ark, in the Holy of Holies, limited access to a select few and protected it from alteration. Protecting the Torah from alteration was significant for two primary reasons. One, the Torah was the standard or canon by which all other sacred writings were tested. Two, the Torah was the standard by which the kings and the nation were evaluated and judged (cf. 2 Kings 21:8, 10-13). If the Torah were in a continuous state of flux, it would lose its authority to be God’s standard.